Photocopying of Music
Guidelines for Educational Use of Music
Copying beyond the amount stated in the guidelines listed below may be justified by fair use after careful analysis, but seeking permission is always preferable.
- Emergency copying to replace purchased copies which for any reason are not available for an imminent performance provided purchased replacement copies shall be substituted in due course.
- For academic purposes other than performance, single or multiple copies of excerpts of works may be made, provided that, the excerpts do not comprise a part of the whole which would constitute a performable unit such as a section, movement or aria, but in no case more than 10% of the whole work.
- Printed copies, which have been purchased may be edited or simplified provided that the fundamental character of the work is not distorted or the lyrics, if any, altered or lyrics added if none exist.
- A single copy of recordings of performances by students may be made for evaluation or rehearsal purposes and may be retained by the educational institution or the individual teacher.
- A single copy of a sound recording (such as a tape, disc or cassette) of copyrighted music may be made from sound recordings owned by an educational institution or an individual teacher for the purpose of constructing aural exercises or examinations and may be retained by the educational institution or individual teacher. (This pertains only to the copyright of the music itself and not to any copyright which may exist in the sound recording.)
- Copying to create or replace or substitute for anthologies, compilations or collective works.
- Copying of or from works intended to be consumable in the course of study or of teaching such as workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and answer sheets and like material.
- Copying for the purpose of performance, except as allowed above.
- Copying for the purpose of substituting for the purchase of music, except as allowed above.
- Copying without inclusion of the copyright notice which appears on the printed copy.