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Psychology

NOTE: This page contains information from the 2012-2013 Catalog. It remains available for archival purposes only. For the most current WC Catalog content, please visit http://catalog.washcoll.edu and download this year’s edition.
Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics

 

Psychology addresses the fundamental premises of human behavior and the brain’s complex role in determining who we are. Students are kept abreast of the latest scientific advances and research methods in this burgeoning field. The department offers a bachelor of arts degree in psychology, as well as two specialized programs: a bachelor of arts concentration in clinical/counseling and a bachelor of science concentration in behavioral neuroscience.

The curriculum in psychology is designed to provide a strong background in the biobehavioral sciences and to prepare students for entry into graduate programs in experimental psychology, clinical/counseling psychology, neuroscience, medicine, and related fields. The course offerings reflect both the basic scientific content of psychology and its application in the clinical setting or in the business world. The department heavily stresses faculty-student interaction through laboratories and internships. A psychology club is open to all interested students, and a chapter of Psi Chi, the national honor society in psychology, also provides supplementary activities.

The curriculum is three-tiered. Students first survey the domain through a year-long general psychology course (tier 1) and then progress through a two-semester methods sequence in statistics and research design while they broaden and deepen their understanding through lab-oriented cognate coursework (tier 2). Students preparing for graduate or professional school are encouraged to work with faculty in a mentor-apprentice fashion no later than their third year; such work often culminates in faculty/student presentations at conferences or co-authored professional publications. Junior seminar (PSY 399) helps students prepare for the senior year as well as consider post-graduate plans. In their last year, majors design and conduct an original research project or write a theoretical review to address some unanswered question in the field under the guidance of a faculty mentor (tier 3). The conceptualization of the senior capstone project is orally proposed no later than the first semester of the senior year. In addition to the written thesis, the results are presented in poster format during the second semester of the senior year. Theses judged by the departmental faculty to be outstanding earn honors status, and the author of one project per year can be given the Psychology Department Senior Capstone Award.

The Virginia Conner ‘85 Prize is given annually to the graduating psychology major “who has demonstrated outstanding ability and achievement in the biobehavioral sciences.” (See page 81 in this Catalog for additional honors and awards given by the department.) Recent graduates have earned their Ph.D. or M.D. from such universities as Toronto, Columbia, Purdue, Delaware, Drexel, South Carolina, Maryland, and Virginia Commonwealth.

Grants awarded to the department by the National Science Foundation and the Jessie Ball duPont Fund have provided state-of-the-art laboratory instrumentation within our newly renovated facility. The Daniel Z. Gibson/John A. Wagner Psychology Visitors Fund provides honoraria for prominent speakers. Money is also available to support student travel to professional conferences.

Teaching and research facilities include: computerized labs in biostatistics, biofeedback/psychophysiology, cognition, sensation and perception, a developmental/social lab with digital video capabilities, a psychometric testing lab complete with personality and cognitive instrumentation, a neuroscience lab with histology and surgery capabilities, a transcranial doppler, and a topographic EEG brain mapper.

Qualified students may spend a semester or two in their junior and/or senior year in which they earn academic credit and clinical experience providing psychological services. A wide array of internship and practicum experiences in local settings is available. Working closely with a therapy team, student interns participate in all aspects of treatment. A junior year abroad program allows students to broaden their horizons at approved institutions; if possible, Psychology majors are encouraged to choose the fall semester of the junior year to go abroad because Junior Seminar is offered each spring.

First-Year And Sophomore Courses

Psychology 111 and 112, the General Psychology sequence, count toward Social Science distribution requirements. Each course may be taken independently. PSY 111 is not a prerequisite for PSY 112.

Students interested in pursuing psychology beyond the introductory sequence should complete PSY 209, Statistics and Research Design I by the end of their sophomore year. Most 300- and 400-level offerings have statistics as a prerequisite.

Writing in the Major Courses

Statistics and Research Design II (Psychology 309) and Junior Seminar (Psychology 399) focus on psychological writing. Together, these two courses refine reading, writing, and thinking skills necessary for performing research. Written components of these courses are specifically designed to hone students’ ability to write detailed critiques of journal articles and create succinct research proposals.

Senior Capstone Experience

Students majoring in psychology must satisfy their requirements for the degree by completing either an empirical research project or a theoretical review paper. Specific guidelines for the Senior Capstone Experience (SCE) are available online at the following address, complete with downloadable SCE guides/samples and a syllabus with deadlines: http://psychology.washcoll.edu/seniorcapstoneexperience.php. The SCE in Psychology is graded as any other course and gets factored into the students GPA. In addition to proposing, writing, and defending the SCE, an additional component of the SCE is completion of the ETS Psychology Major Field Test offered during the spring of every year.

Students with a dual major in Psychology and another discipline who wish to pursue an integrative capstone project must declare this intent early in the first semester of their senior year and secure an agreement from the relevant departments and faculty mentors before commencing their capstone project. The department cannot guarantee that an integrated project acceptable to both departments can be implemented in all instances.

Major Requirements For The B.A. In Psychology

For broad exposure to many disciplines within psychology, courses in the major emphasize empirical testing of theoretical psychological models. The broad Psychology major is especially recommended for those students who wish to double major in psychology and another field or for those who are not interested in the clinical/counseling concentration or the behavioral neuroscience concentration.

A. Two-semester introductory sequence in the natural sciences: Take one of the following sequences:

  • BIO 111 and 112 - General Biology
  • CHE 111 and 112 - General Chemistry
  • PHY 111 and 112 - General Physics

B. The Psychology Core: All of the following psychology courses are required:

  • PSY 111 and 112 - General Psychology
  • PSY 209 - Statistics and Research Design I
  • PSY 309 – Statistics and Research Design II
  • PSY 399 – Junior Seminar
  • PSY SCE – Psychology Senior Capstone Experience

C. Laboratory Requirement: Majors must complete five of the following courses. Three of these must be laboratory courses (+ indicates a laboratory course), and there must be at least one course from each of the three disciplinary areas:

  • General Experimental
  • PSY 202 – Lifespan Developmental
  • PSY 205 – Drugs and Behavior
  • PSY 211 – History and Systems of Psychology
  • PSY 220 – Human Sexuality
  • PSY 221 – Social Psychology
  • PSY 231 – Personality
  • PSY 316 – Cognitive Psychology +
  • PSY 321 – Experimental Social Psychology +
  • PSY 394 – Advanced Developmental Psychology +
  • Applied/Clinical
  • PSY 233 – Psychopathology I
  • PSY 234 – Psychopathology II
  • PSY 304 – Theories & Processes of Counseling
  • PSY 320 – Health Psychology +
  • PSY 333 – Psychological Testing
  • PSY 403 – Behavior Modification +
  • PSY 433 – Child Assessment +
  • Biological
  • PSY 210 – Biopsychology +
  • PSY 305 – Psychopharmacology +
  • PSY 313 – Learning +
  • PSY 317 – Sensation and Perception +
  • PSY 319 – Comparative Psychology +
  • PSY 410 – Neuroscience Research Methods +

Major Requirements For The B.A. In Psychology With A Clinical/Counseling Concentration

Concentration Advisors: Dr. Siemen, Dr. Littlefield

This concentration is designed to prepare students interested in the helping professions and human services. Coursework provides students with a foundation for graduate work in counseling, school psychology, clinical psychology, and the allied health fields. Students are also prepared for entry-level positions in human resources, management, child care or school settings as well as work as clinical/counseling assistants or research assistants.

A. Two-semester introductory sequence in the natural sciences: Take one of the following sequences:

  • BIO 111 and 112 - General Biology
  • CHE 111 and 112 - General Chemistry
  • PHY 111 and 112 - General Physics

B. The Psychology Core: All of the following psychology courses are required:

  • PSY 111 and 112 - General Psychology
  • PSY 209 - Statistics and Research Design I
  • PSY 309 – Statistics and Research Design II
  • PSY 399 – Junior Seminar
  • PSY SCE – Psychology Senior Capstone Experience
  • (SCE topic must be pre-approved by a clinical/counseling concentration advisor)

C. Counseling/Clinical Core - Four (4) of the following courses are required:

  • Personality (PSY 231)
  • Psychopathology I (PSY 233)
  • Psychopathology II (PSY 234)
  • Psychological Testing (PSY 333)
  • Special Topics in Clinical/Counseling/Community Psychology (PSY 294, 394)
  • Theories and Processes of Counseling (PSY 304)
  • Psychology Internship (PSY 490, 491)

D. Counseling/Clinical Lab Courses- Choose two of the following, only one of which can be Advanced Developmental Psychology or Experimental Social Psychology:

  • Health Psychology (PSY 320)
  • Behavior Modification (PSY 403)
  • Advanced Developmental Psychology (PSY 394)
  • Experimental Social Psychology (PSY 321)
  • NRM: Human Neuropsychology (PSY 410)
  • Child Assessment (PSY 433)
  • Advanced Problems (PSY 440); with prior approval
  • FOR DUAL CC and BN CONCENTRATORS: Only one of the courses above may be applied toward the requirements for both concentrations.

E. Biological Lab Courses- Choose one of the following:

  • Biopsychology (PSY 210)
  • Psychopharmacology (PSY 305)
  • Learning (PSY 313)
  • Sensation & Perception (PSY 317)

Strongly encouraged courses to round out the concentration are Developmental Psychology and Drugs & Behavior, as well as an array of courses in other fields (i.e., Biology, Business Management, Education, Philosophy, Sociology…). Discuss areas of potential interest with your academic advisor.

Major Requirements For The B.S. In Psychology With A Behavioral Neuroscience Concentration

Concentration Advisor: Dr. Gibson

The concentration in behavioral neuroscience is designed for students with a focused interest in the biological bases of behavior and thought. The concentration is well suited for students who are contemplating professional or research careers in medicine, pharmaceuticals, veterinarian medicine, animal science, neurology, and neuroscience. Because BN concentrators have additional laboratory requirements beyond other Psychology majors, students in the BN track earn a Bachelors of Science (B.S.).

A. BN students are required to complete all of the following natural science sequences:

  • BIO 111 and 112 - General Biology
  • CHE 111 and 112 - General Chemistry

B. The Psychology Core: All of the following psychology courses are required:

  • PSY 111 and 112 - General Psychology
  • PSY 209 - Statistics and Research Design I
  • PSY 309 – Statistics and Research Design II
  • PSY 399 – Junior Seminar
  • PSY SCE – Psychology Senior Capstone Experience
  • (SCE topic must be pre-approved by the BN concentration advisor)

C. The Behavioral Neuroscience Core: The following two laboratory courses are required:

  • PSY 210 - Biopsychology
  • PSY 410 - Neuroscience Research Methods

D. Additional Laboratory Courses: Three of the following courses are required, with at least one from group D1 and one from group D2:

  • Group D1
  • PSY 305 – Psychopharmacology
  • PSY 313 – Learning
  • PSY 319 - Comparative Psychology

With advance approval of the BN concentration advisor, one of the following can be chosen: on-/off-campus research; Advanced Problems (PSY 440); or an upper-level laboratory course in Biology, Chemistry, or Physics. If choosing this option, one additional course must also be chosen from D1.

  • Group D2
  • PSY 316 - Cognitive Psychology
  • PSY 317 - Sensation & Perception
  • PSY 320 - Health Psychology

E. Fundamental Psychology: One of the following courses is required:

  • PSY 202 – Lifespan Developmental
  • PSY 221 – Social Psychology
  • PSY 233 or 234 – Psychopathology I or II
  • PSY 333 – Psychological Testing

NOTE: Students in the BN concentration are encouraged to take additional 300 and 400-level PSY courses, as well as other upper-level BIO and CHE courses. Those students planning to apply to graduate neuroscience programs, medical, or veterinary schools should also consider MAT 201, MAT 202, PHY 111, PHY 112, CHE 201, and CHE 309/BIO 409. Such students should consult with the Pre-med advisor or their behavioral neuroscience advisor.

Minor Requirements

The following courses fulfill the requirements for a minor in psychology. Four of the six courses must have the PSY prefix and be completed at Washington College.

PSY 111, 112

A year of Statistics (either BUS 203, ECN 215, MAT 109 or PSY 209; and BUS 204 or PSY 309)

Any psychology lab course (not including PSY 209 or PSY 309)

Any additional elective course in psychology.

Course Descriptions

111, 112. General Psychology

An introduction to the science of human and animal behavior. This course surveys the methods and major findings of the various fields of psychology. PSY 111 introduces the student to the cognitive, neurological, and biological aspects of psychology. PSY 112 covers the clinical, personality, and social aspects of psychology.

202. Lifespan Developmental Psychology

This course will provide a broad overview of human growth and development from infancy to old age. Changes in biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains will be discussed. Topics will include heredity, learning, emotional development/temperament, attachment, peer relationships, families, and aging. Recent research across domains will be highlighted.

205. Drugs and Behavior

A survey of human physiological and behavioral responses to commonly used drugs. Special emphasis is placed on nonprescription drugs (nicotine, alcohol, caffeine), psychotherapeutic agents (anti-anxiety drugs, anti-depressant medications, anti-psychotic drugs), and other psychoactive drugs (opiates, hallucinogens, marijuana).

209. Statistics and Research Design I with Lab

Consideration of sampling theory, the design of experiments, and the analysis and presentation of data with emphasis on correlation, t-test, chi square, and the analysis of variance. Attention is given to parametric and non-parametric procedures. Students learn both to hand calculate and to use a simple computer analysis package to analyze data. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112.

210. Biopsychology with Lab

The study of the biological bases of human and non-human behavior. The emphasis is on the hierarchical organization of the nervous system and behavior. Specific topics include: structure and function of the nervous and endocrine systems; mechanisms of neurotransmission; neurologic disorders; feeding; reproduction; aggression; sleep and dreaming; functional organization of sensory and motor systems; lateralization of function and language disorders; learning and memory; and the biological bases of emotion and psychopathology. Laboratory. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 or Biology 111, 112.

211. History and Systems of Psychology

Historical backgrounds of psychological theories and systems (i.e., Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt, Psychoanalytic, and Cognitive) with reference to the significant individuals, classic studies, and major trends in the field. The ways in which psychology has been both influenced by society and has altered society will also be discussed. The latter portion of the course focuses on contemporary trends in psychology.

220. Human Sexuality

A biological approach to the study of human sexuality. This course emphasizes topics such as the anatomy and physiology of the human reproductive system, conception and contraception, STDs and infertility and then continues on to discuss the influences that shape sexual attitudes as well as the values and behavior systems that influence human sexual behavior. An overview of attitudes towards sexuality across cultures is included.

221. Social Psychology

The course surveys the major topics and theories of social psychology, such as social perception, attitudes, altruistic behavior, aggression, attraction, social cognition, as well as applied areas of social psychology and the legal system and the social psychology of health behavior. Special emphasis is placed on original research and recent developments in the field.

231. Personality

Discussion of the major approaches to personality from the psychodynamic approach of Freud to the contemporary cognitive approaches of Kelly, Bandura, and Mischel. Research regarding major personality attributes (need for achievement, authoritarianism, intelligence) may also be discussed.

233. Psychopathology I

Evaluation of the etiology of various forms of behavior disorders (anxiety, mood, substance abuse, psychotic), their symptoms, and treatment. These disorders will be considered in relation to clinical theories, research, and practice. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112.

234. Psychopathology II

Evaluation of the etiology, symptoms, and treatment of behavior disorders within the broad areas of childhood/developmental disorders and medical/organically-induced abnormal behavior. Specific topics include eating disorders, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, learning disorders, autism, mental retardation, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dementia, delirium, and amnesia. Disorders will be considered in relation to clinical theories, research, and practice. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112. Psychopathology I is NOT a prerequisite.

PSY 302 Advanced Developmental Psychology

This course will explore the primary literature on the theory and research of childhood social development.  The specific topic within social development to be covered will vary based on current research goals.  Students will have the opportunity to engage in research projects in natural or laboratory settings.  Naturalistic observations or research testing outside of class time will be required.

304. Theories and Processes of Counseling

An examination of the major theories of counseling (psychoanalytic, rational-emotive, client-centered and behavioral), an examination of the major ethical and legal issues, and an opportunity to acquire practical counseling process skills such as listening, problem-solving, vocational counseling and goal setting. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112, or two semesters of sociology.

305. Psychopharmacology with Lab

An in-depth study of the chemistry and pharmacology of the nervous system. Laboratory exercises will emphasize the use of laboratory animal models in pharmacological research. The actions of pharmacological agents on both the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system will be explored. Laboratory exercises emphasize the use of behavioral measures to assess dose effects, tolerance and withdrawal, and drug interactions. Laboratory. Prerequisite: Psychology 210 or Biology 111, 112. The first semester of the core statistics sequence is recommended.

309. Statistics and Research Design II with Lab

A survey of appropriate research designs employed in psychological research taken during the junior year. Emphasis will be on inferential statistics such as regression, analysis of variance, factor analysis, discriminant analysis, and appropriate a priori and post hoc tests of significance. Examples will be drawn from a wide range of behavioral sciences. Principles relating to the planning, implementation, and ethics of psychological research will be examined and emphasis will be placed upon evaluation of published research and presentation of one’s own research. A significant portion of the course will be devoted to instruction in SPSS, a computer-based statistical package. Use of the World Wide Web as a research tool will be explored. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 and the first semester of the core statistics sequence.

313. Learning with Lab

A consideration of classical and operant conditioning paradigms of learning research. Cognitive theories of learning will be contrasted with the classical and operant theories. Emphasis in lectures and the laboratory will be on experimental research that utilizes nonhuman subjects, but the course will also address the application of these methods and theories to practical human affairs. Laboratory. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112.

316. Cognitive Psychology with Lab

A survey of research in the areas of human learning, memory, attention, problem-solving, and general comprehension processes. Special topics include: eyewitness testimony, reading and comprehension problems, and brain damage. A computer-based laboratory, topographic EEG/ERP, and eye movement research are used for class projects. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 and the first semester of the core statistics sequence.

317. Principles of Sensation and Perception with Lab

A survey of the methods by which humans detect stimuli, the mechanisms used to code and process stimulus information, and the mechanisms used to create meaningful percepts out of sensory information. Special attention is directed to psychophysics, sensory physiology, perceptual illusions, and experimental methods. A computer-based laboratory provides the opportunity to collect and evaluate data. Laboratory. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 and the first semester of the core statistics sequence.

319. Comparative Psychology with Lab

An approach to the study of behavior which considers the wide diversity among animal species and stresses the interaction between inherited factors and the demands of the environment. The emphasis in the lab will be on the methods and skills needed for quantification and analysis of behavioral data in naturalistic and laboratory settings. Laboratory. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 or Biology 111, 112; and the first semester of the core statistics sequence.

320. Health Psychology with Lab

Inquiries into human physiological response patterns to such processes as thinking, emotion, and stress. Electroencephalographic, neuromuscular, glandular, and dermal responses will be studied. Students will develop original research topics related to the investigation and treatment of psychophysiological disorders. Biofeedback theory and use will also be covered. Laboratory. Prerequisite: At least two courses in psychology beyond 111, 112 and the first semester of the core statistics sequence.

321. Experimental Social Psychology with Lab

Thorough and critical examination of current social-psychological thought and theory. Student-initiated research in laboratory or natural settings. Laboratory. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 (or two semesters of sociology).

323. Industrial/Organizational Psychology

This is a perspectives course in that students examine work and organizational behavior from psychological, business science, and sociological viewpoints. Topics in personnel psychology, job motivation, and job satisfaction from the area of I/O psychology are examined along with topics on corporate culture, group process, and leadership from the area of organization behavior. The final section of the course examines issues of sex roles and sex differences that occur in the workplace. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 (Psychology 221 and the first semester of the core statistics sequence are recommended).

333. Psychological Testing

An analysis of the construction, interpretation, and application of various psychological tests and measurement tools. Personality, intelligence, vocational, achievement, and aptitude tests will be evaluated. Offered as an honors course every other year, this course then involves an additional component of group research projects. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 and the first semester of the core statistics sequence. Statistics can be a co-requisite.

399. Junior Seminar

This required 2-credit course, normally taken during the second semester of the junior year, teaches foundational skills that are essential to psychology as a profession, such as ethics certification, writing in the discipline, and proposal development.  By taking this seminar, students will have the opportunity to clarify achievement goals and develop academic and career plans.

403. Behavior Modification with Lab

Concerns the development of skills in altering human behavior according to principles derived from experimental psychology. Attention will be focused on the advantages and limitations of this approach to behavior change and treatment. Laboratory. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 or permission of the instructor.

410. Neuroscience Research Methods with Lab

This course is recommended for students who are preparing for graduate study in neuroscience or medicine and combines seminar and lab work. The topics discussed in the seminar vary from year to year (e.g., Psychopharmacology of Mood Disorders, Animal Models of Mental Illness, Cognitive Neurological Assessment) and may be repeated with permission of the concentration advisor. During the final portion of the course, students design and conduct a pilot research project. The project should be a means for the student to hone skills (e.g., perfect a specific surgical procedure) or develop methods (e.g., neural tract-tracing, histochemistry, quantitative neuroanatomy, neurological assessment, topographic EEG mapping) for his or her senior thesis project. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112 or Biology 111,112; and the first semester of the core statistics sequence; or permission of the instructor.

433. Child Assessment with Lab

This course provides the student with knowledge and experience in the clinical assessment of children. Students will learn observational techniques, behavioral scales, emotional testing, and measures of cognitive assessment (intelligence, language, and memory) that are specific to children and adolescents. Prerequisite: Psychology 333.

490, 491. Psychology Internship

Supervised experience in an agency providing some aspect of psychological services. The class includes seminar sessions designed to help students achieve a fuller understanding of their placement experiences. A large variety of placements are available. PSY 490 is a four-credit course and may be repeated. PSY 491 is an eight-credit course, with twice the time commitment, and may not be repeated. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112, junior/senior standing, and permission of instructor.

SCE: Senior Capstone Experience

The culmination of the students academic experiences, the SCE in Psychology is intended to provide each student with an opportunity to deeply explore a research topic in psychology. In consultation with a faculty mentor, a process of active inquiry is facilitated that requires critical thinking, integration of acquired knowledge and skills, and mastery of intellectual accomplishment beyond the classroom. A theoretical review of a problem/question in the field or a data-driven research project is completed by each student.

Special Courses

490 (491). Psychology Internship

Supervised experience in an agency providing some aspect of psychological services. The class includes seminar sessions designed to help students achieve a fuller understanding of their placement experiences. A large variety of placements are available. PSY 490 is a four-credit course and may be repeated. PSY 491 is an eight-credit course, with twice the time commitment, and may not be repeated. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112, junior/senior standing, and permission of the instructor.

194, 294, 394, 494. Special Topics in Psychology

The study of topics in psychology that are not regularly offered in the curriculum. Courses may be interdisciplinary in nature. Prerequisite: Psychology 111, 112.

195, 295, 395, 495. On-campus Research

A ten-week on-campus summer research project to be guided by a faculty mentor. Based on mutual interests, the student and faculty mentor will develop a research project, supported by a reading list and involving theoretical, laboratory, or field investigations supervised by the faculty mentor. Participants will produce a final report detailing the findings of their research. Selection of students will depend on academic background, scholastic achievement, and the results of a personal interview with the faculty mentor. Not offered as pass/fail. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor.

196, 296, 396, 496. Off-campus Research

Guided research under the supervision of a faculty mentor. Based on mutual interests, the student and faculty mentor will develop a research project, supported by a reading list and involving laboratory or field investigations supervised by the faculty mentor. Participants will produce a final report dealing with the finding of their research. Selection of students will depend on academic background, scholastic achievement, and the result of a personal interview with the faculty mentor. Not offered as pass/fail. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor and psychology department chair.

197, 297, 397, 497. Independent Studies in Psychology

An in-depth study of an area of particular interest to a student and faculty member not regularly covered within the curriculum. Not offered as Pass/Fail. Prerequisite: Permission of the faculty mentor and psychology department chair.

440. Advanced Problems

Advanced independent research under the direction of a faculty mentor. The interested student must petition the psychology department chair for this course and show evidence of the maturity required for its completion. Prerequisite: Psychology 395, 396 or 397 and consent of the faculty mentor.